07 Apr Sexually transmitted infections
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections that are transmitted through unprotected sexual contact. They can be caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites, and affect both men and women.
Sexually transmitted infections can have serious health consequences if left untreated, including infertility, chronic pain, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.
Sexually transmitted infections are a common problem worldwide, affecting millions of people every year. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than one million sexually transmitted infections are registered every day around the world.
In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that there are about 20 million new cases of STIs each year, with half of these cases occurring in people ages 15 to 24. years of age. The most commonly reported STIs in the United States are chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis.
In Serbia, about 1,000 new cases of sexually transmitted infections are reported annually, of which the three most common are chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis. It should be borne in mind that about 70% of cases pass without noticeable symptoms, so the number is certainly higher!
The most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections include chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Chlamydia is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis and is the most frequently reported bacterial STI in Serbia and the world. Chlamydia can infect both men and women and can cause serious complications if left untreated, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, and infertility.
Gonorrhea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae and can also infect both men and women. Gonorrhea can cause serious health problems if left untreated, including PID, infertility, and an increased risk of HIV transmission.
Syphilis is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum and, like the previous two, it can infect both men and women. Syphilis can cause a wide range of symptoms and complications, including skin rashes, fever, and neurological problems.
The biggest problem with this type of infection is the frequent absence of symptoms, so detection and identification are significantly more difficult.
PCR (polymerase chain reaction) testing is a powerful tool for detecting sexually transmitted infections. PCR tests can detect small amounts of bacterial or viral DNA in a sample, allowing for early STI detection. PCR testing is particularly useful for detecting chlamydia and gonorrhea infections, as these infections can often be asymptomatic and go completely unnoticed without specific testing.
PCR testing is also useful for detecting antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. In recent years, there has been an increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of gonorrhea, making the infection more difficult to treat PCR testing can help identify these resistant strains of bacteria and guide treatment decisions.