20 May Pituitary gland
The pituitary gland, also known as the “boss” of the endocrine system, is an essential endocrine gland located at the base of the brain in the bone cavity known as turkic villages.
It is divided into two main parts: the anterior pituitary gland or adenohypophysis and the posterior pituitary gland or neuropitusis.
It plays a crucial role in maintaining the body’s hormonal balance by producing and releasing various hormones that regulate a number of physiological processes.
The pituitary gland is the size of a pea, weighs about 0.5 grams and consists of two parts: the anterior and posterior pituitary gland, which differ in embryonic origin, structure and function.
The anterior pituitary gland consists of gland tissue and makes up about 80% of the mass of the gland.
The gland tissue is organized into five different types of cells: somatotrophs, lactotrophs, thyrotrophs, corticotrophs and gonadotrophs.
Each of these types of cells produces and secretes specific hormones into the bloodstream.
On the other hand, the posterior pituitary gland consists of nerve tissue and stores and releases two hormones synthesized in the hypothalamus: oxytocin and vasopressin.
The pituitary gland plays a key role in regulating various physiological processes, including growth, reproduction, metabolism and stress response.
It receives signals from the hypothalamus, a small area of the brain that regulates many of the body’s functions, and reacts by releasing certain hormones into the bloodstream.
Hormones of the anterior pituitary gland:
The anterior pituitary gland produces and secretes several hormones, each of which has specific functions.
Growth hormone (GH): GH stimulates cell growth and reproduction in humans and other animals. It is released in impulses throughout the day and is regulated by several factors, including sleep, exercise and stress.
Prolactin (PRL): PRL stimulates milk production in women after childbirth and has other functions in both sexes, including immunity regulation, metabolism, and behavior.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH): TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolism and energy balance.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): ACTH stimulates the adrenal gland to produce and secrete cortisol, a hormone that helps the body cope with stress.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH): FSH and LH are essential for reproductive function in both men and women. FSH stimulates the growth and development of ovarian follicles in women and sperm production in men. LH induces ovulation in women and testosterone production in men.
Hormones of the posterior pituitary gland:
The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin, which are synthesized in the hypothalamus.
Oxytocin is involved in social bonding, reproduction and childbirth. In women, it stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and loss of milk during breastfeeding. In men, it can be involved in ejaculation and sperm transport.
Vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), helps regulate the body’s water balance by increasing the reabsorption of water in the kidneys. It also has vasoconstrictive properties, which can increase blood pressure.
Measuring pituitary hormones in blood, urine or saliva is used to assess and diagnose hormonal imbalances and disorders.
Pituitary hormone testing is also used to monitor responses to treatment, assess disease progression, and guide therapeutic decisions.