Adrenal gland

Nadbubrežna žlezda

Adrenal gland

The adrenal gland is the endocrine gland located above each kidney.

It is divided into two main parts: the adrenal cortex and the marrow of the adrenal glands.

Each part has a different structure and function and secretes different hormones.

Adrenal crust:

The adrenal cortex is the outer layer of the adrenal glands and accounts for about 80% of the volume of the gland.

It is divided into three zones: glomerulose zone, fasciculata zone and reticularis zone.

Glomerulos zone: This end layer of the adrenal cortex produces mineralocorticoids, primarily aldosterone.

Aldosterone helps regulate the balance of sodium and potassium ions in the body, which is important for maintaining blood pressure, blood volume and electrolyte balance.

Fasciculate Zone: This middle layer of adrenal cortex produces glucocorticoids, primarily cortisol.

Cortisol plays a key role in the body’s response to stress and helps regulate glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and immune function. It is also involved in regulating inflammation and the body’s response to injuries and infections.

Zone reticularis: This inner layer of the adrenal cortex produces androgens, primarily dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

Androgens are male sex hormones, but they are also present in smaller amounts in women. In both sexes, DHEA can be converted to testosterone and other androgens, which play an important role in the development of secondary sex characteristics.

The marrow of the adrenal gland:

The marrow of the adrenal gland is the inner part of the adrenal gland and is located in the center of the gland.

It is responsible for the production of catecholamines, which include adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (noradrenaline).

These hormones are released in response to stress and help prepare the body for a fight-or-flight response by increasing heart rate, blood pressure and blood glucose levels. They also cause vasoconstriction in certain parts of the body, diverting blood flow to the brain, heart and muscles.

The adrenal gland plays a key role in the body’s response to stress, and its hormones help regulate many important physiological processes, including blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and immune function.

In addition to its role in stress response, the adrenal gland also helps regulate electrolyte balance, fluid balance, and the body’s response to inflammation and infection.

Hormonal disorders:

Disorders of the adrenal glands can lead to hormonal imbalances and a number of symptoms.

Adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison’s disease, occurs when the adrenal cortex does not produce enough cortisol and other hormones. Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, and low blood pressure.

Cushing’s syndrome, on the other hand, occurs when the adrenal cortex produces too much cortisol. Symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome may include weight gain, high blood pressure, and muscle weakness.

Other disorders that can affect the adrenal gland include pheochromocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal medule that causes excessive secretion of catecholamines, and congenital hyperplasia of the adrenal glands, a group of genetic disorders that affect the production of adrenal hormones.

All in all, the adrenal gland is a complex endocrine gland that plays a key role in the body’s response to stress and regulates many important physiological processes. Its hormones, including aldosterone, cortisol and catecholamines, help maintain fluid and electrolyte balance, glucose metabolism and immune function.

Adrenal disorders can lead to hormonal imbalances and a number of serious health complications.


Call Now Button